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Horse Race oder Racing Aces bzw. kurz Racing ist ein einfaches Glücksspiel mit Karten, das in Großbritannien als Pub-Spiel verbreitet ist. Das Spiel simuliert. Übersetzung im Kontext von „online horse-race betting operators“ in Englisch- Deutsch von Reverso Context: In fact, the measure taken as a whole promotes. Übersetzungen für horse race im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:horse race, one-horse race.

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Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Let the race begin! Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Grammatik. Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Interessant ist auch Pferderennen und wetten zu ihnen auf. Das redaktionell gepflegte PONS Online-Wörterbuch, die Textübersetzung und jetzt auch eine Datenbank mit mehreren hundert Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungen aus dem Internet, die verdeutlichen, wie ein Ausdruck in der Fremdsprache tatsächlich verwendet wird. Sparen Sie bares Geld. With this in mind, we have engaged a website designer to deliver us a all slots online casino, more professional hub. If you go in blind and roll over a large k — even this Horses strategy could cost you in the long run if you pay tax on what seemed to be a good over-conversion only to have the markets casino uksh lubeck a a few years later. The database has been updated but if you change your email please let us know. It has become clear that the HWPA mailing list is not comprehensive. Jockey Club of Macau was established for harness racing. Spielautomaten book of ra tricks by HRSM ltd www. Mr green casino bonus eerste wat dat ze doen is contract en laat uw kegel spieren zo snel mogelijk. Entries should be sent clearly stating which category is being entered and with the entrant clearly identified. Racing is a long-established sport in New Zealandstretching back to colonial times. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and speed.

Horses are also run under different conditions, for example Handicap races , Weight for Age races or Scale-Weight. Some of the most prestigious races in the world, such as the Grand National or Melbourne Cup are run as handicaps.

Flat races can be run under varying distances and on different terms. Historically, the major flat racing countries were Australia, England, Ireland, France and the United States, but other countries, such as Japan and the United Arab Emirates, have emerged in recent decades.

Some countries and regions have a long tradition as major breeding centers, namely Ireland and Kentucky. In Europe and Australia, virtually all major races are run on turf grass courses, while in the United States, dirt surfaces or, lately, artificial surfaces such as Polytrack are prevalent.

In Canada, South America and Asia, both surface types are common. Novice jumping races involve horses that are starting out a jumping career, including horses that previously were trained in flat racing.

National Hunt racing is distinguished between hurdles races and chases: National Hunt races are started by flag, which means that horses line up at the start behind a tape.

Jump racing is popular in the UK, Ireland, France and parts of Central Europe, but only a minor sport or completely unknown in most other regions of the world.

National Hunt flat races or "bumpers" without fences or hurdles are also staged to provide experience for horses which have not taken part in flat racing.

In the world's major Thoroughbred racing countries, breeding of racehorses is a huge industry providing over a million jobs worldwide.

While the attention of horseracing fans and the media is focused almost exclusively on the horse's performance on the racetrack or for male horses, possibly its success as a sire, little publicity is given to the brood mares.

Such is the case of La Troienne , one of the most important mares of the 20th century to whom many of the greatest Thoroughbred champions, and dams of champions can be traced.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Thoroughbred horse race. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing. Retrieved 31 May If you have forgotten your password you can reset it here.

Once signed in head to Goodwood. You will receive email confirmation of your application s and a further email once your application has been processed to confirm it has been approved or denied.

Please take a couple of minutes to read before you proceed. Please note that this car park is available on a first come, first served basis. If you have any questions please contact Emma Chamings — emma jsccomms.

Entry payments MUST be paid online. Cash or cheques will not be accepted. Individual Leg prizes will be calculated after we have clarity on the number of members who enter.

Rules are the same as Each set of selections should have a nap, which if successful will be paid at double SP. Late selections will not be accepted.

The initial leg will be run by David Cleary. Entries should be emailed to him at dpcleary btinternet. This was a change of system imposed on the HWPA members and the wider racing media by the Racecourse Association despite us raising a number of objections that were rejected.

We did, however, receive an undertaking from the RCA that they would review the situation in the summer. Some of you will hate the new lanyards and some will not give a jot but we need to understand how you are all feeling for this meeting.

There has already been some negative feedback, especialy from photographers regarding the practicality, or lack of it, of having a lanyard around the neck.

If there is a groundswell against lanyards, tell us what the problem them. We need solid arguments to go to the RCA with. If you have any points to make please email the usual address or contact Dan Abraham.

We need to modernise and have a much more professional focal point for the organisation. With this in mind, we have engaged a website designer to deliver us a slicker, more professional hub.

Initial work has been done and another meeting is imminent. I hope to have more news shortly. We had a clutch of popular winners, the newly designed awards seemed well received and we have received some favourable comments from guests indicating they intend to join us again.

Treasurer Jan Green is still tying up the final details of the finances but we should hopefully soon have an idea of any surplus that will be donated to our chosen charity, Racing To School.

This is open to all members. This is also the opportunity for members to put themselves forward to be on the committee. Should you wish to stand, you should contact the HWPA via hwpacontacts gmail.

Alastair Down holds the record for the number of wins as Racing Writer of the Year four. The Photographer of the Year award, founded in and judged by a three-strong panel, was won for the fourth time by Dan Abraham, freelance photographer with focusonracing.

The Picture of the Year award, inaugurated in , went to first-time nominee Megan Ridgwell of Megan Rose Photography, with her winning photo depicting a sunset and a race at Chelmsford City Racecourse.

She triumphed from powerful opposition in the shape of dual winner McCann, Edward Whitaker, record seven-time Photographer of the Year for the Racing Post, and freelance Bill Selwyn, winner of the Photographer of the Year in He also won the Flat Trainer of the Year award in Dettori has won the Flat Jockey of the Year five times before , , , and Prince Khalid Abdullah, who had the Horse of the Year Enable, became the Owner of the Year for the sixth time previously , , , and Charlie Appleby, for the second year in succession, is the International Trainer of the Year, an award decided by the International Racing Bureau.

Members are asked to cast their vote in five racing categories, with contenders drawn up following a ballot among HWPA Committee members. Votes should be emailed to: However, the HWPA committee have decided that this year there will be a slight change to the journalist awards.

Entrants will only be able to enter one category — either Reporter of the Year or Racing Writer of the Year. Maximum Stable Size At the first of the year a maximum stable size will start being enforced.

Stables will not be able to create or claim horses if their stable size exceeds this limit of active horses.

The maximum stable size will slowly be walked down to a final maximum size of Here is the limits for each month until it reaches Barring any set backs we hope to have a beta available by or before the BC Special Races.

Watching Races The current recommended browser for watching races here is Internet Explorer. The following steps can be tried for Mozilla Firefox.

You can either load the Firefox ESR version extended support release from here: Not only do you guys make the best horse racing games, I think ,simply put, you make the best games!

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Another awesome post from the Mad Fientist! In your last example market value decreased , what would you do? I think I would stick with the Roth conversion to watch the last 9.

Fresh money avoids the 30 day wait on re-conversions, since it is different money. Like many of your posts Madfientist, I will end up reading this over and thinking about it off and on for the next week, so job well done sir.

Just wait until after FI and then you can have fun with all of this. Wow, after thinking through all the scenarios, it seems like there is pretty much no downside to this method.

If one or both funds go positive for the year, you come out with some great tax benefits. If both go negative for the year, you have the ability to perform TGH, which is an equally valuable tax avoidance tool.

Basically, you get to maximize any part of the outcome matrix. Is there value in rebalancing early the next year to re-align the tax status of the different assets?

As far as rebalancing is concerned, I treat that as a completely separate activity and only worry about that after taxes have been minimized.

Just added a link to this one to your guest post on my site: First time commenter here, but have been following for awhile.

Thank you for sharing your strategies with us. I still have a couple years to FI, but I will probably be doing some Roth conversion this year, as we added a solar system to our house and have some sizable nonrefundable credits coming.

Even though we changed our withholdings early in the year, I think we will not owe enough to take full advantage of the credits. Oh, this is such a great plan!

This is an awesome benefit, but my suspicion is it will rarely apply. These estimates are based on the standard deduction and personal exemption multiplied by Among the FI crowd, such high pretax balances would be an oddity with the IRS limits for contributions.

The IRA also should have gains that increase its value at the time of conversion. This will probably get lost in the nesting, but there are benefits to leaving funds in an old k also, such as being able to access the funds at 55 vs.

If you go in blind and roll over a large k — even this Horses strategy could cost you in the long run if you pay tax on what seemed to be a good over-conversion only to have the markets pull a a few years later.

But I look forward to being ER to have more tax space to play these games! The point about the different tax treatment of k and traditional IRA is important.

Steve, you can only access k funds at age 55 without penalty if you leave the job your k is associated with after you turn 55 or older.

Therefore, for most early retirees, a k and an IRA are quite similar when it comes to withdrawal age restrictions.

There are a couple of caveats though. The first is having a dual-income situation where both can fully load their ks.

The second is the Traditional IRA phase-out for those covered by an employer plan. I imagine this will be the case for many people who are capable of maxing out their k.

This is a crucial point. The darn trad IRA increased in value while I was contributing to it! And then its continued growth could mean one ends up with RMDs whose size threatens or actually does push you into a higher tax bracket, changes your LTCG rate, and causes more Soc Sec to be taxed, etc.

But I agree, the horse race might not be worth obsessing about if tax-free Roth conversions can handily convert your entire trad IRA into Roth IRA within the time period you want it to.

I tried to stick with the Horse Race theme! I agree that if you will have no trouble draining your Traditional IRA, you might as well save yourself the hassle and just roll over normally.

This is an awesome strategy… I desire to build a ROTH ladder for my early retirement plans, but never thought of converting more than just a small amount over my current expenses to cover future inflation.

I am not sure on all of the required processes involved with the re-characterization, but I have quite a few years before I need to know.

Hello Brandon, Are you going to FinCon ? Love to have your opinion… We have always been big fans of yours. It can be something you easily shoot on your SmartPhone!

Please let me know if you will be able to participate and if you have any questions. I already have a Erlenmeyer flask so assuming I can track down some dry ice and a lab coat before your deadline which is very soon!

I clicked thru the Bogleheads link provided, which led me to this https: In fact, I wrote an entire post on the topic so check it out here.

The deadline to recharacterize is Oct Independent of whether or not you file an extension. If you recharacterize after April 15 -you will have to file an amended return to account for the recharacterization.

You generally can recharacterize your rollover or conversion by October 15 of the following year, regardless of whether you requested an extension to file your tax return.

For example, for your conversion to a Roth IRA in , you have until October 15, , to recharacterize. This deadline applies even if:.

Trying to get clear on this strategy… So you convert on Jan 1, into 2 separate Roths one for total stock index fund and one for total bond index fund, lets say.

I just wanted to see if you would be willing to do an article about funding early retirement through a a deferred comp plan.

I figure that although this account is meant for withdrawal at age 55 or later lol , I can use it to my advantage to fund year one of early retirement without a penalty, instead of waiting to age This could eliminate the need to save after tax dollars for one full year of early retirement, if not MORE.

The plan states that, upon termination, any dollars in a a plan are to be lump sum liquidated. I am sure all these plans work this way.

Very few of your readers may qualify to participate in these plans, but I am sure that a few or more do. This can be a very penalty, lucrative way to fund early retirement, simply quit in January and fund year one with this taxable account, but pay no penalties to the IRS for doing so, only regular income tax.

Interestingly, this is one of the reasons casinos have a maximum bet. It appears a similar strategy can be utilized when initially contributing to a IRA.

This is due to different share prices between when the contribution was first made and the re-characterization date.

Share price when contributing to Roth IRA: Share price when re-characterizing to Traditional IRA: As a result, 5 shares will remain in the Roth IRA now completely tax free.

This seems too good to be true, but I saw this happening when doing a re-characterization. Thanks for posing this useful article.

Any thoughts on using this with the Roth Back door strategy? The horse-race strategy is generally not applicable to solely back-door Roth contributions, since the back-door Roth contributions are non-deductible.

Then recharacterize 11 of them and only keep the one where I got the best price. Yes, but it would be best to open 12 seperate Roth accounts.

And it would probably be more advantageous to recharacterize only enough to get your marginal tax rate into the lower brackets.

This may have already been answered, but what if you are already contributing to Roth IRAs and have a Roth k through work?

Does this change the conversion at all? I am in my mid twenties and am working towards financial freedom. I have been contributing into my k at work with my contributions being Roth and also have a Roth IRA through Vanguard that I max out.

I have always maxed out roth due to tax free growth, but never knew about the conversion ladder. So I guess my real question is do the contributions need to be in a traditional to take advantage of this?

Yes, your contributions need to be into a Traditional k or a Traditional IRA to take advantage of this concept. And yes, you are probably better off doing that.

My understanding, is that custodians handle IRS Form at the account level. Therefore, if you use only one account, any losers in that one account will be aggregated with any winners.

Obviously, this would negate the whole purpose of this strategy, which is to recharacterize your losers. FYI, starting in this tactic is forbidden.

Your email address will not be published. Join over 81, others on the Mad Fientist email list to get access to exclusive content and software!

To keep track of your IRAs, click here to download a free copy of the spreadsheet I used on my own journey to financial independence!

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. The most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe , Melbourne Cup , Japan Cup , Epsom Derby , Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup , are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent.

In the most prestigious races, horses are generally allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males.

These races are called conditions races and offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.

Jump or jumps racing in Great Britain and Ireland is known as National Hunt racing although, confusingly, National Hunt racing also includes flat races taking place at jumps meetings; these are known as National Hunt flat races.

Jump racing can be subdivided into steeplechasing and hurdling , according to the type and size of obstacles being jumped.

The word "steeplechasing" can also refer collectively to any type of jump race in certain racing jurisdictions, particularly in the United States.

Typically, horses progress to bigger obstacles and longer distances as they get older, so that a European jumps horse will tend to start in National Hunt flat races as a juvenile, move on to hurdling after a year or so, and then, if thought capable, move on to steeplechasing.

The length of an endurance race varies greatly. Some are very short, only ten miles, while others can be up to one hundred miles.

There are a few races that are even longer than one hundred miles and last multiple days. Contemporary organized endurance racing began in California around , and the first race marked the beginning of the Tevis Cup [16] This race was a one-hundred-mile, one-day-long ride starting in Squaw Valley , Placer County , and ending in Auburn.

Founded in , the American Endurance Ride Conference was the United States' first national endurance riding association.

In most horse races, entry is restricted to certain breeds; that is, the horse must have a sire father and a dam mother who are studbook-approved individuals of whatever breed is racing.

The exception to this is in Quarter Horse racing, where an Appendix Quarter Horse may be considered eligible to race against standard Quarter Horses.

The designation of "Appendix" refers to the addendum section, or Appendix, of the Official Quarter Horse registry. An Appendix Quarter Horse is a horse that has either one Quarter Horse parent and one parent of any other eligible breed such as Thoroughbred, the most common Appendix cross , two parents that are registered Appendix Quarter Horses, or one parent that is a Quarter Horse and one parent that is an Appendix Quarter Horse.

AQHA also issues a "Racing Register of Merit," which allows a horse to race on Quarter Horse tracks, but not be considered a Quarter Horse for breeding purposes unless other requirements are met.

A stallion who has won many races may be put up to stud when he is retired. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer technology allowed only in some breeds has brought changes to the traditions and ease of breeding.

Pedigrees of stallions are recorded in various books and websites, such as Weatherbys Stallion Book , the Australian Stud Book and Thoroughbred Heritage.

There are three founding sires that all Thoroughbreds can trace back to in the male line: They were taken to England, where they were mated with mares from English and imported bloodlines.

Thoroughbreds range in height, which is measured in hands a hand being four inches. Some are as small as 15 hands while others are over Thoroughbreds can travel medium distances at fast paces, requiring a balance between speed and endurance.

Artificial insemination, cloning and embryo transfer are not allowed in the Thoroughbred breed. The Arabian horse was developed by the Bedouin people of the Middle East specifically for stamina over long distances, so they could outrun their enemies.

It was not until that the Arabian was introduced into the United States. Until the formation of the Arabian Horse Registry of America in , Arabians were recorded with the Jockey Club in a separate subsection from Thoroughbreds.

Arabians must be able to withstand traveling long distances at a moderate pace. They have an abundance of type I muscle fibers , enabling their muscles to work for extended periods of time.

Also, the muscles of the Arabian are not nearly as massive as those of the Quarter Horse, which allow it to travel longer distances at quicker speeds.

The Arabian is primarily used today in endurance racing , but is also raced over traditional race tracks in many countries. The ancestors of the Quarter Horse were prevalent in America in the early 17th century.

These horses were a blend of Colonial Spanish horses crossed with English horses that were brought over in the s. The native horse and the English horse were bred together, resulting in a compact, muscular horse.

At this time, they were mainly used for chores such as plowing and cattle work. The American Quarter Horse was not recognized as an official breed until the formation of the American Quarter Horse Association in In order to be successful in racing, Quarter Horses need to be able to propel themselves forward at extremely fast sprinter speed.

The Quarter Horse has much larger hind limb muscles than the Arabian, which make it less suitable for endurance racing. When Quarter Horse racing began, it was very expensive to lay a full mile of track so it was agreed that a straight track of four hundred meters, or one quarter of a mile, would be laid instead.

There is less jockeying for position, as turns are rare, and many races end with several contestants grouped together at the wire.

The track surface is similar to that of Thoroughbred racing and usually consists of dirt. In addition to the three main racing breeds above and their crosses, horse racing may be conducted using various other breeds: Muscles are bundles of contractile fibers that are attached to bones by tendons.

These bundles have different types of fibers within them, and horses have adapted over the years to produce different amounts of these fibers.

Type II-b fibers are fast twitch fibers. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and speed.

Type I fibers are slow-twitch fibers. They allow muscles to work for longer periods of time resulting in greater endurance.

Type II-a fibers are intermediate, representing a balance between the fast-twitch fibers and the slow-twitch fibers.

They allow the muscles to generate both speed and endurance. Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen.

Type II muscles are needed for anaerobic exercise because they can function in the absence of oxygen. This type of fiber allows them to propel themselves forward at great speeds and maintain it for an extended distance.

The conditioning program for the different horses varies depending on the race length. Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance.

A horse's fitness plan must be coordinated properly in order to prevent injury or lameness. If these are to occur, they may negatively affect a horse's willingness to learn.

Because the skeletal system does not reach full maturity until the horse is at least four years of age, young racehorses often suffer injuries.

In the United States, Thoroughbred flat races are run on surfaces of either dirt, synthetic or turf. Other tracks offer Quarter Horse racing and Standardbred racing, on combinations of these three types of racing surfaces.

Racing of other breeds, such as Arabian horse racing, is found on a limited basis. American Thoroughbred races are run at a wide variety of distances, most commonly from 5 to 12 furlongs 0.

The South Westbury section is still known as Salisbury. The first record of quarter mile length races dated back to in Henrico County , Virginia.

Each race consisted of only two horses, and they raced down the village streets and lanes. The Quarter Horse received its name from the length of the race.

The American Stud Book was started in , prompting the beginning of organized horse racing in the United States.

There were tracks operating in the United States by ; and in , the American Jockey Club was formed. The Pleasanton Fairgrounds Racetrack at the Alameda County Fairgrounds is the oldest remaining horse racing track in America, [32] dating back to , when it was founded by the sons of the Spaniard Don Agustin Bernal.

Belmont Park is located at the western edge of the Hempstead Plains. Its mile-and-a-half main track is the largest dirt Thoroughbred race course in the world, and it has the sport's largest grandstand.

One of the latest major horse track opened in the United States was the Meadowlands Racetrack , opened in for Thoroughbred racing.

It is the home of the Meadowlands Cup. Other more recently opened tracks include Remington Park , Oklahoma City , opened in , and Lone Star Park in the Dallas—Fort Worth Metroplex , opened in ; the latter track hosted the prestigious Breeders' Cup series of races in The Hall of Fame honors remarkable horses, jockeys , owners, and trainers.

They are all held early in the year, throughout May and the beginning of June. In recent years the Breeders' Cup races, run at the end of the year, have challenged the Triple Crown events as determiners of the three-year-old champion.

The Breeders' Cup is normally held at a different track every year; however, the and editions were both held at Churchill Downs, and the , and races were held at Santa Anita Park.

Keeneland , in Lexington, Kentucky, hosted the Breeders' Cup. The corresponding Standardbred event is the Breeders Crown.

American betting on horse racing is sanctioned and regulated by the state where the race is located. A takeout, or "take", is removed from each betting pool and distributed according to state law, among the state, race track and horsemen.

A variety of factors affect takeout, namely location and the type of wager that is placed. Advanced Deposit Wagering is a form of gambling on the outcome of horse races in which the bettor must fund his or her account before being allowed to place bets.

ADW is often conducted online or by phone. In contrast to ADW, credit shops allow wagers without advance funding; accounts are settled at month-end.

Racetrack owners, horse trainers and state governments sometimes receive a cut of ADW revenues. The most famous horse from Canada is generally considered to be Northern Dancer , who after winning the Kentucky Derby , Preakness and Queen's Plate in went on to become the most successful Thoroughbred sire of the twentieth century; his two-minute-flat Derby was the fastest on record until Secretariat in The only challenger to his title of greatest Canadian horse would be his son Nijinsky II , who is the last horse to win the English Triple Crown.

It is the only race track in North America which stages Thoroughbred and Standardbred harness meetings on the same day. There are 15 racecourses in the Czech Republic, most notably Pardubice Racecourse, where the country's most famous race, the Velka Pardubicka steeplechase , has been run since The Czech horse racing season usually starts at the beginning of April and ends some time in November.

Racing takes place mostly at weekends and there is usually one meeting on a Saturday and one on Sunday. France has a major horse racing industry.

Besides Longchamp, France's other premier flat racecourses include Chantilly and Deauville. There is also a smaller but nevertheless important jumps racing sector, with Auteil Racecourse being the most well known.

The sport's governing body is France Galop. Horse racing in Great Britain is predominantly thoroughbred flat and jumps racing.

It was in Great Britain in the 17th to 19th centuries that many of the sport's rules and regulations were established. The name " Derby " has since become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times in races abroad.

The Grand National is the most prominent race in British culture , watched by many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.

The sport is regulated by the British Horseracing Authority. Despite having an ancient tradition with well-documented history, all racetracks in Greece have ceased operation due to the Greek government-debt crisis.

Hungary has a long-standing horse racing tradition. The first horse racing in Pest was noted June 6, Foremost of these is Kincsem , foaled in and the most successful Thoroughbred race horse ever, having won 54 races in 54 starts.

The country also produced Overdose , a horse who won his first 12 races, including group races in Germany and Italy , and finished fourth in the King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot.

Ireland has a rich history of horse racing; point to pointing originated there, and even today, jump racing is more popular than racing on the flat.

As a result, every year Irish horse racing fans travel in huge numbers to the highlight event of the National Hunt calendar, the Cheltenham Festival , and in recent years Irish owned or bred horses have dominated the event.

The world's largest Thoroughbred stud farm, Coolmore Stud , has its main site there in addition to major operations in the U.

In recent years, Irish bred and trained horses have enjoyed considerable success in major races worldwide. Various horses achieved victory in one or more of the British Guineas , The Derby and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe , considered the three most prestigious races in Europe.

In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times. Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland and France in size and prestige.

The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable. In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern.

In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal.

Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world.

In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years.

In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s.

More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race.

In all endurance events there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern.

Racing is a long-established sport in New Zealand , stretching back to colonial times. Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1.

More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand.

Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world.

The most famous of these is probably Cardigan Bay. The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere.

The Mauritius Turf Club is the second oldest active turf club in the world. Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island.

A high level of professionalism has been attained in the organisation of races over the last decades preserving the unique electrifying ambiance prevailing on race days at the Champ de Mars.

Champ de Mars has four classic events a year such as: Most of the horses are imported from South Africa but some are also acquired from Australia, the United Kingdom and France.

Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in The premier event, which attracts 50, people to Durban, is the Durban July Handicap , which has been run since at Greyville Racecourse.

It is the largest and most prestigious event on the continent, with betting running into the hundreds of millions of Rands.

Horse racing in one form or another has been a part of Chinese culture for millennia. Horse racing was a popular pastime for the aristocracy at least by the Zhou Dynasty - 4th century B.

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